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Response to balloon injury is vascular bed specific

A consequence of de novo vessel structure?

      Abstract

      Relative contributions of remodelling and neointimal hyperplasia to restenosis after coronary angioplasty have been inferred from studies using iliofemoral arteries, despite differences in structure/function and smooth muscle cell lineage. We compared the response to balloon overstretch injury of coronary arteries (C, n=16) and similar sized branches of the iliac arteries (I, n=18) using preinjury vessel diameter (P), inflated balloon size in vivo (B) and the manufacturer predicted inflated size (M) to examine arterial compliance, as well as resulting injury and morphology in perfusion fixed vessels. Despite similar degrees of oversizing (M/P) in the coronary and iliac arteries (C, 1.44±0.04; I, 1.51±0.02), the compliance to overstretch (BP/MP) was significantly greater in the coronary than the iliac arteries (C, 0.71±0.05; I, 0.51±0.03) (P<0.05) and was associated with a higher injury score (C, 1.64±0.31; I, 0.39±0.18 P<0.05)—only 5/18 iliac vessels had rupture of the IEL compared with 13/16 in the coronary bed. In a subgroup of animals whose vessels (C:n=7; I:n=8) were perfusion fixed 28 days after injury, coronary arteries had greater intimal area (C:1.03±0.42; I:0.10±0.03 mm2, P<0.05) but larger luminal area (C:1.61±0.71; I:0.76±0.51, P<0.05) due to greater area within EEL (C:3.38±0.49;I:1.49±0.54, P<0.05) or less inward remodelling. The injuries resulting from similar strategies of balloon overstretch in the coronary and the iliac arteries are different and affect healing responses-iliac arteries remodel more while coronary arteries develop more intimal hyperplasia. These results indicate that caution is warranted when extrapolating results from the iliac to the coronary artery when investigating restenosis after angioplasty.

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